Solar Performance, Buying, Reliability and Maintenance in Photovoltaics:

A Review of Practical Solar Information for Investors, Consumers, Engineers, and Installers


This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Complex Review and summarizes technical work completed by various research groups including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with funding from the United States government. Neither Complex Review nor the United States government, nor any of its authors, employees or collaborators, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by Complex Review, the United States government, or its collaborators.


Solar energy systems which produce electricity directly from sunlight have greatly advanced in recent years. Now many municipalities and states are ramping up installations of photovoltaic or PV solar systems to produce electricity. After decades of research and development, studies find well-built solar systems can be reliable, resilient in severe weather, and economical. However, in a rapidly growing and evolving industry with intense price competition, training and quality assurance measures remain important. This document is a brief review of recent practical information on PV solar, including performance, quality assurance, installation, asset protection, and maintenance for stakeholders including investors, consumers, engineers and installers.

Table of Contents

1. Progress in Price, Efficiency, and Storage

2. Real-World Performance and Warranties

3. Investing in Certified Installers and Equipment

4. Cleaning, Care and Maintenance

5. Managing Partial Shading

6. Weighing Investments in Solar Energy


List of Acronyms


1. Progress in Price, Efficiency and Storage

The price of solar panels dropped by about 90% in 15 years–from an inflation-adjusted average of about $3.46 per watt in 2003 to 35 cents per watt in 2017. Price reduction continues for panels, installation, and in particular, soft costs.

The efficiency of solar cells and panels in converting solar energy into electricity has also increased. Consumers can now readily purchase silicon solar panels with conversion efficiencies around 22 percent. Efficiencies as high as 46 percent have been demonstrated for the most advanced concentrator solar cells, and efficiencies continue to rise for numerous types of panels, as well.

The payback time for U.S. residential systems depends on many factors, but buyers typically find payback periods to be shorter than the warrantied lifespans of solar panels. PVWatts® is a useful free calculator that investors and consumers can utilize to estimate system production and energy costs before investing in PV. This is provided by NREL, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which also provides the System Advisor Model (SAM) to estimate performance and financial metrics for residential and commercial renewable energy systems, including battery storage and power purchase agreements.

For remote locations, solar combined with energy storage often provides an upfront low-cost alternative, eliminating the high cost of extending distribution lines from the nearest grid power source. The cost of batteries, which can store solar-generated power, is also dropping rapidly, facilitating off-grid installations, reducing demand charges, and providing valuable grid backup. NREL offers a tool called REopt, Renewable Energy System Integration and Optimization, which can be utilized to optimize resilience or financial savings for PV solar plus battery systems. BLAST, the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool Suite is another set of tools to estimate the useful lifespan of batteries under specific conditions before they need rebuilding or recycling.

Today, many buildings and homes can produce as much electricity as they use, especially if energy-efficiency measures are in place. Electric vehicles can also be charged with solar energy. Researchers have also found that homes with solar often sell for a premium, increasing the probability of a return on investment for the seller.

2. Real-World Performance and Warranties

Well-constructed solar panels have demonstrated real-world lifespans of 25 to 30 years or more and performance has been analyzed in various climates. Certified solar panels are tested and designed to resist damage from hail, and high winds. Buyers in regions prone to tornadoes or hurricanes can use hurricane-resistant mounting brackets and consider bolts through solar panel frames. Selecting panels with thicker frames and thick, tempered glass also can increase resistance to damage from extreme weather and heavy snow loads. Well-built solar systems with energy storage can provide valuable back-up power when the grid is down. Warranties should be read carefully because they seldom cover all types of problems. However, a combination of warranties, certifications, and insurance can protect investments during extreme weather events and reduce financial risk.

Studies of newer panels are finding that failure rates are low, and systems often produce as much or more electricity than predicted thus far. To improve reliability of solar panels and systems, NREL continually analyzes performance and develops new international standards and recommended best-practices in collaboration with other experts globally. Standards and certifications may have helped the industry maintain reliability despite dramatic drops in price.

Solar panels often exhibit a gradual decrease in electricity production over time. This degradation rate is typically low—about ½ to 1 percent per year, and it is a relative number, starting from 100 percent of the panel’s original production level. For instance, if a panel that has an initial efficiency of 22 percent consistently degrades 0.6 percent per year, it would be 18.9 percent efficient 25 years later. Although warranties vary, manufacturers commonly guarantee power production at different solar panel ages in a linear or stepped pattern, which often amounts to about 80 percent of the original rated power output after 25 years. For some panels or systems, the warranty is backed by insurance in case the manufacturer goes out of business during the lengthy warranty time frame. Note, however, that many solar panels also have a more limited 10–12-year product warranty that covers issues such as failure due to manufacturing defects. A free, open source software, RdTools, provides a more reliable way to calculate degradation rates for systems that frequently log performance data.

Finally, inverters, which convert the system’s electricity from direct current to more commonly needed alternating current, are more likely to fail than solar panels. Therefore high-quality inverters that have longer warranties and quality certifications are recommended. Installing inverters in a shaded or sheltered area may improve lifespan by reducing temperature fluctuations.

3. Investing in Certified Installers and Equipment

Installers with high quality PV-specific training are recommended, such as those certified by the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP). Solar panels certified to stringent standards[1] such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are also recommended. The IEC standards identify whether a solar panel’s design is likely to exhibit known, early failures. Comprehensive quality assurance certifications including consistent manufacturing are also available through the IEC System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Renewable Energy Applications (IECRE).

Utilize the roofing industry’s best-practice recommendations specific to roof type, such as flashing for durable, waterproof roof mounting. Researchers recommend using high-quality panels and installations that allow airflow beneath the panels, rather than mounting them flush to the roof, especially in warmer climates. Care should be taken to follow instructions specified by manufacturers because various panels and inverters require different installation and care. Panels with thinner frames and glass may require careful handling and mounting to avoid twisting or bending during transport and installation which could cause microcracks in cells. A technical guide for system installation is also available from NREL.

4. Cleaning, Care and Maintenance

In practice, cleaning requirements for smaller systems are often minimal. Panels installed at an angle from horizontal of 5-10 degrees or more are often cleaned adequately by rain. Cleaning may be recommended if there is a lengthy absence of rain, a heavy coating of dust from construction, plowing, or a sandstorm, if debris or heavy, uneven soiling is visible on the panel surface, or if panels are mounted horizontally. In colder climates, steeper mounting angles also enable snow to slide off more rapidly.

If water is used to clean panels, researchers recommend hosing them down when they are cool so as not to thermally shock the panels. Most residential solar panels are made with crystalline silicon. However, using a squeegee to clean a type of solar panel with ‘thin film’ semiconductor material while the system is operating could cause damage due to partial shading. Shut the system off first. To avoid mechanical damage and performance issues, researchers also recommend not kneeling or walking on panels, unless the manufacturer notes that their modules have been designed for walking on. Good system design can reduce maintenance and repair requirements, and further useful information is provided in Best Practices for Photovoltaic Operations and Maintenance.

5. Managing Partial Shading

Solar panels may be partially shaded by a chimney or tree during part of the day, which negatively impacts performance. Fortunately, this issue can be reduced by selecting panels that tolerate partial shading and good system design. For example, commonly available system devices—power optimizers or microinverters—can enable electricity to flow from the panels that are in sunlight, instead of electricity flow being blocked by shaded or underperforming panels. In addition to reducing the impact of partial shading, power optimizers or microinverters also can enable the rapid shutdown of solar systems, a common safety requirement.

6. Weighing Investments in Solar Energy

Distributed energy production combined with storage or special grid design can provide increased energy security during grid outages due to extreme weather or security problems. PV solar also has low water requirements, making it useful for regions with a limited or unreliable supply. Land use requirements for solar energy can be further minimized with distributed rooftop solar and other multi-use sites including shade structures (Figure 1). Quality solar panels also can pay back the amount of energy required for their production decades before retirement, and greatly reduce emissions in addition to financial savings. Compared to energy generation from traditional fuels, solar energy reduces pollutants that currently impact human health from infancy through adulthood, including cardiovascular and lung risks. Ratings for sustainability of manufacturing processes are also available, such as the Sustainability Leadership Objectives. Financially, region-specific incentives, as described in the DSIRE database, make investing in solar energy more affordable. Today, solar panels are often used to reduce energy expenses, provide grid back-up power, and power homes, vehicles, and commercial buildings. Solar energy systems have improved in efficiency, reliability, and price. Continuing to utilize and develop best practices and certifications drawn from more than a half century of PV experience and experiments can increase the return on investment and reduce risk for stakeholders.

Fig. 1 Solar Photovoltaic parking lot shade structures reduce the urban heating effects of hard surfaces, and reduce energy demands for cooling vehicles during warm weather. The large parking garage in the background is a 1MW system. These monitored systems have continued to produce electricity well despite a May 2017 hail storm that caused 2.3 billion dollars of damage to the region. © NREL PIX 33749, Dennis Schroeder.


Ardani, Kristen, Eric O’Shaughnessy, Ran Fu, Chris McClurg, Joshua Huneycutt and Robert Margolis. 2017. “Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-7A40-67474.

Barbose, Galen, Naïm Darghouth, Kristina LaCommare, Dev Millstein, and Joe Rand. 2018. “Tracking the Sun: Installed Price Trends for Distributed Photovoltaic Systems in the United States – 2018 Edition” Berkeley, CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Bhandari, Khagendra P., Jennifer M. Collier, Randy J.Ellingson, and Defne S.Apul. 2015. “Energy payback time (EPBT) and energy return on energy invested (EROI) of solar photovoltaic systems: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47: 133-141.

Blair, Nate, Nicholas DiOrio, Janine Freeman, Paul Gilman, Steven Janzou, Ty Neises, and Michael Wagner. 2018. “System Advisor Model (SAM) General Description (Version 2017.9.5).” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/ TP-6A20-70414.

Buka, Irena, Samuel Koranteng, and Alvaro R Osornio-Vargas. 2006. “The effects of air pollution on the health of children.” Paediatrics & Child Health 11(8): 513–516.

Cutler, Dylan, Dan Olis, Emma Elgqvist, Xiangkun Li, Nick Laws, Nick DiOrio, Andy Walker, and Kate Anderson 2017. “REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL/TP-7A40-70022.

Feldman, David, Jack Hoskins, Robert Margolis, 2018. Q4 2017/Q1 2018 Solar Industry Update Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/PR-6A20-71493.

Hoen, Ben, Sandra Adomatis, Thomas Jackson, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Mark A Thayer, Geoffrey T Klise, and Ryan H Wiser. 2015. “Selling Into the Sun: Price Premium Analysis of a Multi-State Dataset of Solar Homes” Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-6942E.

Hotchkiss, Eliza. “PV Survivability from Hurricanes: Lessons Learned” 2018. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. September 06.

IEC System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Renewable Energy Applications (IECRE).

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

International PV Quality Assurance Task Force. 2016. “Background information: Questions and Answers about Standards for Photovoltaic Modules.”

Jordan, Dirk C. and Sarah R. Kurtz. 2013. “Photovoltaic Degradation Rates — An Analytical Review” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21(1) 12-29.

Jordan, Dirk C. and Sarah R. Kurtz. 2014. “Reliability and Geographic Trends of 50,000 Photovoltaic Systems in the USA.” Paper Presented at the European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Amsterdam, Netherlands September 22–26.

Jordan, Dirk C., Sarah R. Kurtz, Kaitlyn VanSant, and Jeff Newmiller. “Compendium of Photovoltaic Degradation Rates.” 2016. Progress in Photovoltaics 24(7), DOI: 10.1002/pip.2744.

Jordan, Dirk C., Timothy J. Silverman, John H. Wohlgemuth, Sarah R. Kurtz, and Kaitlyn T. VanSant. 2017. “Photovoltaic Failure and Degradation Modes.” Progress in Photovoltaics (25) 4: 318-326.

Jordan, Katherine A., George Kelly, and Sarah R. Kurtz. 2017.  “Streamlining Due Diligence with the IECRE” Solar Professional Magazine 10.5, September/October.

Jordan, Katherine A., Micheal G. Deceglie, Chris Deline, and Dirk C. Jordan. 2018. “Calculating PV Degradation Rates Using Open-Source Software” (RdTools) Solar Professional Magazine 11.2 March/April.

Kelechava, Brad. 2018. “Solar Photovoltaic Modules – Sustainability Leadership Objectives” American National Standards Institute Blog

McLaren, Joyce A, Mullendore, Seth, Laws, Nicholas D, and Anderson, Katherine H. 2018. “Valuing the Resilience Provided by Solar and Battery Energy Storage Systems”. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/BR-6A20-70679.

Mejia, Felipe A., and Jan Kleissl. 2013. “Soiling Losses for Solar Photovoltaic Systems in California” Solar Energy 95: 357-363.

Meldrum, James, Syndi Nettles-Anderson, Garvin Heath and Jordan Macknick. 2013. “Life Cycle Water Use for Electricity Generation: A Review and Harmonization of Literature Estimates.” Environmental Research Letters 8(1)

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) “Accurate Degradation Rate Calculation with RdTools”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) “Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool Suite (BLAST)”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) “Cybersecurity and Resilience”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) “REopt: Renewable Energy System Integration and Optimization.”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) “SAM: System Advisor Model.”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2013. “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2014. “PVWatts: NREL’s PVWatts® Calculator” Version 6.1.0

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2017. “Invisible damage from walking on a solar panel” NREL Learning.

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2017. “Researchers at NREL Find Fewer Failures of PV Panels and Different Degradation Modes in Systems Installed after 2000.”

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2018. “Best Research-Cell Efficiencies.” Chart. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 2018. “Valuing the Resilience Provided by Solar and Battery Energy Storage Systems” NREL/BR-6A20-70679.

NREL/Sandia/Sunspec Alliance SuNLaMP PV O&M Working Group. 2016. “Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices in Photovoltaic System Operations and Maintenance 2nd Edition.” NREL/TP-7A40-67553

The North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners®

NC Clean Energy Technology Center. Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency® (DSIRE)

Ong, Sean, Clinton Campbell, Paul Denholm, Robert Margolis, and Garvin Heath. 2013. “Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-56290.

Patringenaru, Ioana. 2013. “Cleaning Solar Panels Often Not Worth the Cost, Engineers at UC San Diego Find.” University of California San Diego News Center August 01, 2013

Raugei, Marco, Sgouris Sgouridis, David Murphy, Vasilis Fthenakis, Rolf Frischknecht, Christian Breyer, Ugo Bardi, Charles Barnhart, Alastair Buckley, Michael Carbajales-Dale, Denes Csala, Mariska de Wild-Scholten, Garvin Heath, Arnulf Jæger-Waldau ,Christopher Jones, Arthur Keller, Enrica Leccisi, Pierluigi Mancarella, Nicola Pearsall, Adam Siegel, Wim Sinke, and Philippe Stolz. 2017. “Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation: A comprehensive response.” Energy Policy 102 (2017): 377–384.

Silverman, Timothy J, Mansfield, Lorelle Mansfield, Ingrid Repins, and Sarah Kurtz. 2016. “Damage in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Due to Partial Shade” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 6(5):1-6.

U.S. Department of Energy. 2015. “Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics.” DOE/GO-102015-4755

Wiser, Ryan, Trieu Mai, Dev Millstein, Jordan Macknick, Alberta Carpenter, Stuart Cohen, Wesley Cole, Bethany Frew, and Garvin Heath. 2016. “On the Path to SunShot: The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-65628.

List of Acronyms

Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool Suite

Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency®

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEC System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Renewable Energy Applications

North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners®

National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Calculator for estimating the energy production and cost of energy of grid-connected photovoltaic energy systems

Renewable Energy System Integration and Optimization

Degradation Rate Calculation Tool

System Advisor Model


Special thanks to David Feldman, Nate Blair, Garvin Heath, Whitney Painter, George Kelly and many others for contributing their expertise.

About the Authors

Sarah Kurtz earned a Ph.D. in chemical physics from Harvard University and joined the Solar Energy Research Institute (now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL) where she worked for more than 30 years. At NREL, she served as Co-director of the National Center for Photovoltaics and group manager for the PV Module Reliability Test and Evaluation Group.  She is now a professor with the University of California, Merced, while continuing work with NREL. She is known for her contributions to developing world record breaking high efficiency multijunction, GaInP/GaAs solar cells, supporting the concentrator photovoltaic (PV) industry, and, more recently, her international work with PV performance, quality and reliability. Dr. Kurtz was a co-recipient of the Dan David Prize in 2007, the Cherry Award in 2012, and the C3E Lifetime Achievement Award in 2016. > Contact Sarah

Katherine Jordan is a technical writer and consultant for renewable energy, bridging information between stakeholders and scientists. An advanced statistics advocate for improving performance in R&D, she has a master’s degree in the interdisciplinary field of behavioral neuroscience. Jordan has 20 years’ experience editing and consulting in semiconductors, materials science and field performance of photovoltaics. For over a decade, she has researched concerns about solar energy from consumers, investors, installers, and engineers and communicated with scientists and other experts. > Contact Katherine

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